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Watch This Guy Simulate How “Human Skin” Reacts To Being Electrocuted

What does it feel like to be shot? Fortunately, thanks to the marvels of material sciences, researchers dont have to actually shoot a person to find this out: Ballistic gelatin has properties similar to the muscular tissue of pigs, which in turn is a good proxy for human tissue.Essentially, their viscosities and densities are all very similar, which means it handles being shot in a very similar way.

So, by extension, one could use this gel to ask another question: What does it look like to be electrocuted?

As luck would have it, an intrepid electrophile named Andy has recently been wondering what happens to ballistic gel when it encounters a powerful electrical current. Using ablock of the translucent jelly-like substance, he demonstrates his ability to torture it across a series of loud and effervescent experiments on his YouTube channel Photonicinduction, all in the name of science.

Ballistic gel versus electricity. Photonicinduction via YouTube

Although he continuously ups the voltage of the electrical current throughout this particular video and produces some spectacular fireworks as he does so this doesnt give the more scientifically inclinedviewers enough information as to how dangerous the current actually is.

Voltage refers to the difference in charge between two points, and is just one of three main variables describing the physics of electrical currents. The amperes of the current describe the rate the charge is flowing from one point to the other, and the ohms value details how resistant the material is to the flow of charge. All three quantities are interrelated.

For an electrical current to do significant damage, it needs to be have both a high voltage and a high amperage. The higher the voltage, the lower the skins or gels resistance to the current will be. The higher the amperage of this current, the more the charge will be delivered to the target over a set time limit.

Now, young Skywalker you will die. Photonicinduction via YouTube

So without knowing the amperage (or range of resistance) values of the ballistic gel, it cannot be properly compared to human skin or muscle at this point. Nevertheless, its fiery electrocution is unnervingly mesmerizing to watch.


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Whats Happening To Us When We Get Drunk?

The Australian relationship with alcohol is complicated. Its a colourful thread woven into the fabric of our society.

As a chemical, alcohol is a very simple molecule, but its effects on the brain are quite complex. And different people respond differently to alcohol in different situations.

Consumed orally, alcohol enters the bloodstream through the gastrointestinal tract. The amount that is absorbed varies from individual to individual depending on their genetic make-up and any medical conditions. It also varies depending on whether there is food in the gut, since this can reduce absorption into the bloodstream.

The size of the person and ratio between muscle and fat will also affect the rate at which the persons blood alcohol concentration rises with consumption. Because alcohol is water-soluble, if two people weigh the same, the person with more muscle and less fat will have a lower blood alcohol concentration than somebody with more fat and less muscle after consuming the same amount of alcohol.

Once in the bloodstream, alcohol affects many of our bodys organs, but the nervous system (including the brain) is key in terms of behavioural effects. Alcohol acts as a central nervous system depressant. This means it slows down the rate at which brain cells and other nerves in the body communicate with one another.

Some people are surprised to find out alcohol is a central nervous system depressant since a low dose of alcohol can often lift ones mood and act as a social lubricant.

Low Doses

The reason alcohol acts as a social lubricant is because it reduces the functioning of the limbic system of the brain. The limbic system is responsible for producing emotions that drive anxiety and fear. As such, we tend to feel a little less socially awkward after a few drinks.

In addition, alcohol reduces the functioning of the pre-frontal cortex the part of the brain responsible for higher-order cognitive processing (including reasoning and judgement). This leads people to be less inhibited and more impulsive after they have had a few drinks.

One danger of this reduction in inhibitions and impaired judgement is that people can sometimes consume more alcohol than they had originally intended.

Higher Doses

As the dose of alcohol increases, so does the impact on the brain. Functioning of the pre-frontal cortex becomes further impaired such that peoples behaviour becomes even more uninhibited and judgement further impaired. Consequently, our behaviours are increasingly driven by the more primitive parts of the brain. Hence the potential increase in aggression and sexual prowess.

Things we wouldnt do sober Toby Bradbury/Flickr, CC BY

Alcohol also impacts on the cerebellum the region at the back of the skull that co-ordinates muscle activity. Motor co-ordination increasingly becomes impaired as the dose of alcohol increases. Along with this comes the sensation of dizziness that can lead to nausea and vomiting.

High doses of alcohol also slow down the rate at which neurons communicate in the parts of brain that are essential for controlling our vital processes such as heart rate and breathing (the pons part of the brainstem that directs messages to the cerebellum).

In an alcohol overdose, a person will stop breathing completely, causing death.

Set And Setting

While the pharmacology of alcohol has a significant role in some of the subjective effects we experience from it, the influence of the environment that a person is drinking in and their pre-drinking psychological state cannot be underestimated.

In terms of setting, think about the difference between drinking at a wedding and drinking after a funeral. The pharmacology of the drug remains the same, but the setting has a major influence on the way we experience its effects.

Alcohol can exacerbate negative moods, so you should avoid drinking if you are not in a good frame of mind. The power of the mind is important here. People will begin to show minor signs of alcohol intoxication when provided with a placebo.

In studies where people are provided with a placebo they are told is alcohol, they are just as likely to want to engage in risky or sensation-seeking behaviours, feel sexually aroused and sedated. This can partly be explained by conditioning, in which the body has a learned chemical response when exposed to a stimulus.

Peoples expectations about the type of beverage they drink also affects their subjective experience. You might have been told that gin makes you feel depressed, so you feel more depressed after drinking gin.

So, this Christmas, drink only if youre feeling festive and maybe switch out the gin for some eggnog.

Stephen Bright, Registered psychologist and sessional academic, Curtin University

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Top 10 Things You didn’t Know About Che Guevara

Che Guevara. He is loved and he is hated. He is one of the biggest commercial successes and one of the most brutal murderers in recent history. It is no wonder that a man so passionately loved and hated is familiar to most people. This list looks at some of the less familiar aspects of his life. If you have other little known facts about Che Guevara, be sure to tell us in the comments.


The name “Che Guevara” either incites love or hate. The name is synonymous with freedom fighting to some, and butchery to others. What most people don’t know is that Che’s real name was not quite so romantic; he was born Ernesto Lynch. That’s right – Che Guevara was actually plain old Mr Lynch. It doesn’t have quite the same ring to it does it? His surname comes from the fact that his family was half Irish. Ernesto Lynch is pictured above at the age of 22.

Che Guevara Prisionero.Jpg

Che Guevara as a youth was nicknamed “Chancho” (pig) because of his bathing habits (or lack thereof) and the fact that he proudly wore a “weekly shirt” – ie, a shirt he changed once a week. All through his life people commented on his smelliness (though obviously not to his face once he had the power to execute people on a whim).


Contrary to the image we all have of Guevara, in his youth he was quite the geek. He loved playing Chess and even entered local tournaments. In between hanging out with his chess buddies, Ernesto would read poetry which he loved with a passion. His favorite subjects at school were mathematics and engineering. I think we could safely say that if he were a teenager today, he would be EMO. Pictured above is an artist’s impression of EMO Ernesto Lynch (AKA Che Guevara).


While Guevara is best remembered for his actions in Cuba, he was actually born in Argentina to wealthy parents and he never became a Cuban citizen. When he was born, his father said “the first thing to note is that in my son’s veins flowed the blood of the Irish rebels.”


There seems to be some dispute about this fact around the Internet, but in June 1953, Guevara completed his medical studies and graduated as Doctor Ernesto Guevara. While studying he was particularly interested in the disease Leprosy.

In 1964, Guevara travelled to the United States to give a speech to the United Nations in New York. You can watch a portion of it in the video clip above. Whilst there he condemned the US for their racial segregation policies: “Those who kill their own children and discriminate daily against them because of the color of their skin; those who let the murderers of blacks remain free, protecting them, and furthermore punishing the black population because they demand their legitimate rights as free men — how can those who do this consider themselves guardians of freedom?”


We tend not to see Guevara as a family man, but in fact he had one child with his first wife, Hilda Gadea, a daughter who was born in Mexico City on February 15, 1956, and he had four children with his second wife, the revolutionary Aleida March. Pictured above is Camilo – Che’s son.

Mn Guevara.Jpg

After hie execution, a military doctor amputated Che’s hands. Bolivian army officers transferred Guevara’s body to an undisclosed location and refused to reveal whether his remains had been buried or cremated. The hands were preserved in formaldehyde to be sent to Buenos Aires for fingerprint identification. (His fingerprints were on file with the Argentine police.) They were later sent to Cuba.


The high-contrast monochrome graphic of his face has become one of the world’s most universally merchandized and objectified images, found on an endless array of items, including t-shirts, hats, posters, tattoos, and even bikinis, ironically contributing to the consumer culture he despised. The original image was snapped at a memorial service by newspaper photographer Alberto Korda. At the time, only Korda thought highly of the shot, and hung the picture on his wall, where it stayed until an Italian journalist saw it, asked if he could have it, and Korda obliged.


Guevara remains a beloved national hero to many in Cuba, where his image adorns the $3 Cuban Peso and school children begin each morning by pledging “We will be like Che.” In his native homeland of Argentina, where high schools bear his name, numerous Che museums dot the country, and in 2008 a 12 foot bronze statue of him was unveiled in his birth city of Rosario. Additionally, Guevara has been sanctified by some Bolivian farm workers as “Saint Ernesto”, to whom they pray for assistance. Needless to say, the Catholic Church does not consider Guevara to be a saint and strongly opposes the adulation of him.

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Real People Actually Found These Terrifying Creatures Living Inside Of Them. Yikes.

We all want someone to share or lives with, but for whatever reason, doing the same with a bug doesn’t have the same appeal. Perhaps because sharing your life with another person involves sleeping in the same bed. Sharing your life with a bug means having it live inside of your body. It may not have the same annoying family members that you have to deal with during the holidays, but even the worst mother-in-law wouldn’t think of crawling inside of your ear.

The people in the (extremely graphic) pictures below had to deal with various bugs living inside of their persons and, well, it isn’t pretty.

WARNING: If you’re even the least bit squeamish, this simply isn’t for you.  

1.) After waking up with an earache, this Australian man discovered a cockroach crammed in his ear.

2.) A woman in Scotland discovered a three inch leech living up her nose after she returned from a trip to Southeast Asia.


3.) A British man spent three days with this moth buzzing around in his ear.

4.) An Indian man complaining of an itchy ear went on to discover there was a cricket holed up in there.

5.) When this man returned from Belize, he thought he had The World’s Worst Hangover. What he really had was a botfly living inside of his scalp.

6.) A man in India made the unfortunate realization that a 19 centimeter worm was living inside of his eyeball.

7.) When an African Fly bit the man in the video below, it laid its eggs inside him as well.

If you want to see what it looks like to have larvae in your arm, check out the video below.

(via ALLDAY, Mirror)

Well, that’s horrifying. It’s time to go bathe in bug spray, if only for the peace of mind.

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Top 10 Fascinating Facts About Cheese

I’ve been contemplating writing a list for a while now and finally got my inspiration from watching one of my favorite cooking shows, Good Eats. (Hush, Jamie. I know you hate that show.) My love of cheese has grown throughout the years, from asking my parents for some “cheesh” please to carefully selecting a new cheese to try from the gourmet section of my local grocery store. I hope you all enjoy reading this as much as I enjoyed researching and writing it.


The root of the English word cheese comes from the Latin caseus, which also gives us the word casein, the milk protein that is the basis of cheese. In Old English, caseus was c?ese or c?se, which became chese in Middle English, finally becoming cheese in Modern English. Caseus is also the root word for cheese in other languages, including queso in Spanish, kaas in Dutch, käse in German, and queijo in Portuguese. Caseus Formatus, or molded (formed) cheese, brought us formaticum, the term the Romans employed for the hard cheese used as supplies for the legionaries. From this root comes the French fromage and the Italian formaggio.


Cheese consumption predates recorded history, with scholars believing it began as early as 8000 BC, when sheep were first domesticated, to as late as 3000 BC. It is believed to have been discovered in the Middle East or by nomadic Turkic tribes in Central Asia, where foodstuffs were commonly stored in animal hides or organs for transport. Milk stored in animal stomachs would have separated into curds and whey by movement and the rennet and bacteria naturally present.

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Egypt brings us the earliest archeological evidence of cheesemaking, found in tomb murals that date back to 2000 BC. These cheeses were likely to have been very sour and salty (lots of salt was needed to preserve the cheese in the hot, arid climate) and similar to a cottage cheese or feta in texture. Cheeses made in Europe didn’t require as much salt because of cooler conditions, thus paving the way for beneficial microbes and molds to form and give aged cheeses their interesting and robust flavors.


Ancient Greeks and Romans were the first to turn cheesemaking into a fine art. Larger Roman houses even had a special kitchen, called a careale, just for making cheese. After developing new techniques for smoking and adding other flavors into cheeses, the Romans spread this knowledge slowly through their empire. Local resources allowed for different varieties to develop along the way.

Cheese Display

After the fall of the Roman Empire, innovative monks were responsible for inventing some of the classic varieties of cheese we know today. According to the British Cheese Board, Britain has approximately 700 distinct local cheeses. It is thought that France and Italy have perhaps 400 each. The varying flavors, colors, and textures of cheese come from many factors, including the type of milk used, the type of bacteria or acids used to separate the milk, the length of aging, and the addition of other flavorings or mold.

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Although most cheese is produced from cow, sheep, or goat’s milk, it can and has been made from a plethora of milk-producing animals. A farm in Bjurholm, Sweden actually makes moose cheese. The lactation period of moose is short, lasting from about June to August, and the farm, owned by Christer and Ulla Johansson, keeps three moose that produce only 300 kilograms of cheese per year. The moose cheese sells for roughly US$1000 per kilogram. Places in Russia also produce moose milk but have not had success with moose cheesemaking due to its high protein content.


The United States is the top producer of cheese in the world, with Wisconsin and California leading the states in production. Although the US produces the most cheese, Greece and France lead the pack in cheese consumption per capita, averaging 27.3 and 24.0 kilograms per person in 2003 respectively. In the same year, the average US citizen consumed around 14.1 kg, although cheese consumption in the US has tripled since 1970 and is continuing to increase. Pictured above is cheez whiz. Keep it classy.

800Px-Cheese Limburger Edit

Limburger cheese is notorious for its strong and generally unpleasant odor. The bacteria known as brevibacterium linens causes this. It is also found on human skin and is partially responsible for body odor. The Chalet Cheese Cooperative, located in Monroe, Wisconsin, is the only maker of limburger cheese in North America today.


When eating cheese fondue, make sure to save room for “the nun” at the bottom of the pot, or la religieuse. Religieuse means nun in French and usually refers to a type of pastry. There is much speculation as to why the cracker-like, toasted cheese layer found in the bottom of a caquelon is called la religieuse, ranging from the legend that monks saved the last remaining bits of fondue for the nuns to the idea that eating it is a religious experience. In German, it is called the Großmutter or grossmutter, which translates to grandmother. The meaning behind this use is also unclear.


“A cheese may disappoint. It may be dull, it may be naive, it may be over sophisticated. Yet it remains, cheese, milk’s leap toward immortality.” Clifton Fadiman (American writer and editor; New Yorker book reviewer, 1904-1999)

“A dinner which ends without cheese is like a beautiful woman with only one eye.” Jean-Anthelme Brillat-Savarin (French lawyer and politician, epicure and gastronome, 1755-1826)

“Many’s the long night I’ve dreamed of cheese — toasted, mostly.” Robert Louis Stevenson (Scottish novelist, poet, essayist and travel writer, 1850-1894)

“How can you govern a country which has 246 varieties of cheese?” Charles De Gaulle (French general and president, 1890-1970)

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25 Strangest Medical Treatments In History

While some of these treatments are still practiced today, they way medical issues were handled in the past will make you glad you are alive in the 21st century. These are the 25 strangest medical treatments in history.

25. Moldy Bread

wikipedia Used to disinfect cuts since the days of ancient Egypt there is some merit to this. As was eventually discovered, certain fungi can actually block disease causing bacteria.

24. Crystal Meth

wikipedia Apparently this was Hitler’s medication of choice. His doctor would inject his buttocks with meth laced vitamins to keep him feeling “fresh, alert, and active”.

23. Farts in a Jar During the Middle Ages doctors believed that “like cures like”. So, during the Black Death, which was thought to be cause by lethal vapors, some doctors encouraged people to store their farts in jars and take a whiff every time they walked past.

22. Dead mouse paste

wikipedia In ancient Egypt if you had a toothache then mashed mice mixed with other ingredients were typically applied to the spot.

21. The half mouse remedy

wikipedia Equally, if not more disturbing was the fact that in Elizabethan England mice were cut in half and applied to warts on the skin.

20. Crocodile Dung

wikipedia It’s been used as a contraceptive. We’ll leave it at that.

19. Powder of Sympathy Of all the crazy medicines in the 17th century this one probably took the cake. Intended as a treatment for sword wounds it was made of earthworms, pig brains, rust, and mummified corpses all ground into powder.

18. Arsenic

wikipedia Although today it’s well known as a poison, in the past it was a critical ingredient in Chinese medicines, cures for malaria, and Victorian women even used it as a cosmetic.

17. Snake Oil

wikipedia While today it refers to quack medicine, for centuries it has been used in China to relieve joint pain.

16. Urine Diagnosis Ok, this one is used today for very legitimate purposes. The urine diagnosis that was performed in Medieval hospitals was much different though. It consisted of little more than a smell test that was sometimes even followed by a taste test.

15. Vin Mariani

wikipedia Invented in 1863 by Italian chemist Angelo Mariani, it consists of red wine mixed with cocoa leaves. The thing about cocoa leaves is that they contain cocaine. You can bet this drug was a hit and it even inspired the invention of Coca-Cola.

14. Sheep Liver

wikipedia Without modern technology, physicians in Mesopotamia relied on inspecting the livers of sacrificed sheep for their diagnosis rather than inspecting the patients themselves.

13. Tongue Cutting

wikipedia Also known as hemiglossectomy doctors in the 18th and 19th tried to cure stuttering by cutting of large chunks of their patients tongues. This is actually still practiced today for treatment of oral cancer.

12. Electrocution An often used but controversial treatment has been electroconvulsive therapy or ECT. Invented in the 1930s it is still used today as an effective remedy for depression.

11. Ketchup In the 1830s Dr. Archibald Miles declared that he found a substance in tomatoes that could cure diarrhea. His compound was famously known as “Dr. Miles Compound Extract Of Tomato” and was eventually declared a hoax.

10. Dog poop

wikipedia At one point in time the home remedy for sore throats was album graecum, or dried dog dung.

9. Sweating

wikipedia Used as a group counseling and psychotherapy technique, this has existed in numerous cultures to promote well being.

8. Shark Cartilage

wikipedia It was the 1950s when the sharks-don’t-get-cancer-so-lets-all-eat-shark-cartilage craze took off. Today, however, it has been proven to be little more than quackery.

7. Mud

wikipedia Used in numerous pharmaceutical remedies including the coating on pills, its most famous use has been by NASA to counter the bone degenerating effects of weightlessness.

6. Cigarettes

wikipedia Prior to anti smoking ads there were a number of pro smoking ads. Aired in the early 20th century, most of these promoted cigarettes as an effective treatment for cancer.

5. Leeches

wikipedia Often used to let out “bad blood”, these days the practice of leeching has made somewhat of a comeback in the arena of organ reconstruction and microsurgery.

4. Heroine

wikipedia In the late 1800s heroine was marketed as a remedy for coughs, colds, and pain.

3. Ecstasy

wikipedia While some proponents have reemerged in recent years, in the 1970s there was a strong push to use this drug in psychotherapy.

2. Mercury

wikipedia Used to treat syphilis until the early 20th century, side effects included tooth loss, ulcers, and severe neurological damage.

1. Soothing Syrup A remedy known as Mrs. Winslow’s Soothing Syrup became popular in the late 1800s to help children get through the teething process. The main issue with the syrup though was its two main ingredients – morphine and alcohol. Not surprisingly it was removed from the marketplace in the 1930s.

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Try Not To Drool Over Kim Kardashian’s Go-To Fast Food Meals

Kim Kardashian has been known to splurge every now and then on fast food delicacies. And even though she’s currently following a strict Atkins diet, Kardashian admitted in a recent blog post, of course I still have cravings! Don’t we all, Kim. Don’t we all.

But what are her five favorite go-to drive-thru meals? Lucky for us, now we know! According to People, Kim Kardashian wrote a fast food tell-all on her app, saying,

Fast food is def one of my guilty pleasures. I go very rarely, but OMG I love it so much when I decide to indulge.

Among her favorite guilty pleasures is an In-N-Out plain cheeseburger, “cheese fries” (could she mean animal fries??) and a vanilla shake. Yum! Kim K seems very particular about her Chipotle order, however, as she explained,

I love to order the Chipotle bowl, but I get it with just rice, chicken, guacamole and cheese.I have to have chips on the side, of course. Then I always get a Diet Coke from the fountain with LOTS of ice. If they don’t put enough ice in it, I die.

Kim revealed she also goes for the OG Mexican food chain — aka Taco Bell. She said of her favorite TB order,

I always get one soft taco and one hard taco, both with beef. Then cinnamon twists for dessert!

Drooling yet? Kardashian can’t complete any fast food favorites list without giving a shoutout to KFC. From the fried chicken joint, she said she loves to get “extra-crispy chicken wings and a biscuit with honey.” If that doesn’t sound like a perfect meal, then I officially know nothing.

Last but not least, Kim revealed her must-haves from fast food joint number one: McDonald’s. When at the Golden Arches, Kim K said she “ALWAYS” has to get a small order of fries, though she’ll also often get “chicken nuggets and dip them in honey.”

I know we’re still recovering from the long weekend, but are you thinking what I’m thinking? Yep, buckle your seatbelt because we’re going to the nearest drive-thru ASAP. Thanks a lot, Kim.

Subscribe to Elite Daily’s official newsletter,The Edge, for more stories you don’t want to miss.

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What Steroids, HGH, And Other Popular PEDs Actually Do To Your Body

Richard Drew, File / AP

Now that Major League Baseball has finally come down with its expected suspensions in the ongoing Biogenesis performance-enhancing drugs scandal, let’s take a look at some of the more popular PEDs. What do they do, and how potentially harmful are they?

2. Stanozolol (Winstrol)

Tony Duffy / Hulton Archive / Getty Images

Like all anabolic steroids, the idea here is to build muscle mass and strength, and a dedicated regimen of stanozolol will do that. It’s popular with veterinarians, who use the drug (known commercially as Winstrol) to give sick animals a bit more of an appetite, but for humans, it must be taken at regular intervals over time for the effects to be noticeable. It was Ben Johnson’s drug of choice at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul, as well as disgraced former MLB player Rafael Palmeiro. The potential side effects are varied and severe, including hypertension, heart problems, and increased risk of injuries, to name just a few.

3. Androstenedione

Elsa / Hulton Archive / Getty Images

Androstenedione, made famous by former Cardinals slugger Mark McGwire, is a naturally occurring hormone in both men and women that is secreted mainly from the adrenal glands. Athletes would use it to help boost testosterone levels and experience the benefits therein: more muscle mass, faster recovery from pesky injuries, and so forth. The U.S. government banned its sale in 2004, citing “serious, substantial concerns about its safety,” and it appears to have largely fallen out of favor with professional athletes.

4. Methenolone enanthate (Primobolan)

Scott Anderson / Reuters

Primobolan, another from the family of anabolic steroids, was what Alex Rodriguez reportedly tested positive for back in 2003, along with testosterone, and Barry Bonds was apparently also a fan. Side effects are said to be less severe, as compared to other steroids, and is thus more amenable to use with “stacking” — when users combine one or more anabolic steroids. It’s especially popular with bodybuilders.

5. Tetrahydrogestrinone (THG, “The Clear”)

Lisa Blumenfeld / Getty Images

The most famous of the next-gen “designer steroids” developed by BALCO, THG provides many of the similar effects granted by traditional anabolic steroids. Side effects are not as well documented, although some research says that it’s “conceivable” that they are “adverse.” For years, it was virtually undetectable by drug tests — until a syringe was mailed anonymously to the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency in 2003. During Barry Bonds’ 2011 perjury trial, his lawyer admitted that the all-time home run leader did use the substance during his career, but believed it was flaxseed oil.

6. Testosterone (“The Cream”)

Morry Gash / AP

Tests that revolve around the presence of testosterone are looking for elevated levels beyond a certain threshold and in relation to epitestosterone, another naturally occurring male hormone. That’s what got Ryan Braun in hot water the first time around in 2011. Years earlier, BALCO pioneered the new-age application of testosterone by formulating a “cream” that supposedly included some presence of epitestosterone to keep levels more in balance — and thus undetectable.

7. Human Growth Hormone

George Rose / Hulton Archive / Getty Images

In addition to a wide and varied regimen of anabolic steroids, late NFL defensive end Lyle Alzado — whose famous 1991 admission of years of steroid use helped spotlight their popularity and prolonged abuse — also used human growth hormone (HGH) to boost muscle mass. The only patients who should be prescribed synthetic HGH are those with an actual growth hormone deficiency, and yet annual sales have recently topped $1 billion. And the NFL still doesn’t test for HGH use, though the NBA will likely start next season. HGH has also often been marketed as an anti-aging drug – it isn’t – and Biogenesis, which supplied HGH and other drugs to some of baseball’s biggest stars, billed itself as an anti-aging clinic.

8. Erythropoietin (EPO)

Peter Dejong, File / AP

A naturally occurring hormone (like testosterone) that’s secreted from cells in your kidneys, erythropoietin helps regulate the production of red blood cells, which carry oxygen through the body and keep your muscles moving. Injecting artificial EPO essentially overrides your body to regulate that healthy, normal production, so you get a massive boost in performance that can also lead to blood clots if unmonitored. The synthetic version, first developed 30 years ago, has been popular with doping cyclists, including Lance Armstrong himself.

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Deadly Fungus Makes Sexy Frog Zombies

For the last few decades, amphibian populations around the world have been decimated by a deadly disease. Caused by a fungus, it has been responsible for catastrophic declines in frogs, driving many species into extinction, and threatening around a third of all the remaining species still clinging on. But infection does not always lead to extinction, as some species are found to carry the fungus but still survivefor a period of time at least.

Scientists looking at one species that carries the disease yet manageto survivefound something they didnt expect: infection actually increases the males attractiveness to females. Those male frogs that tested positive for the fungus, known officially as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), put more effort into their calls to attract mates. This could have profound implications on how the disease spreads within amphibian populations, and how it has managed to disperse so far and wide.

The disease has been implicated in mass amphibian die-offs. Forrest Brem/Wikimedia Commons

Originally identified in 1993, Bd was found to be the cause of a mass die-off in frog populations in Australia. Bd was identified as a chytrid fungus, leading to the highly infectious disease known as chytridiomycosis, whichkills amphibians by stopping them from absorbing water through their skin. Thispreventsthem from breathing or regulating their water levels. Since then, the diseasehas been found on every continent except Antarctica, heavily impacting hundreds of species of frogs and possibly drivingat least 200 of those species to extinction.

But the mass dies-offs that were initially associated with the diseaseare not the whole story. Many populations of amphibians have been infected, but have then declined slowly over time, meaning that the spread and infection of Bd is seemingly more complex than first thought. It was this that led the researchers to look into how the fungus was impacting the Japanese tree frog (Hyla japonica), which appear to be tolerant to the pathogen.

Their results, published in Biology Letters, found that those male frogs infected with Bd were marginally larger than their uninfected counterparts, but also that they put more effort into their breeding calls. Female Japanese tree frogs prefer males that call for longer and faster, and it turns out that this is exactly what the frogs with the fungus are doing.

Now whether or not the increase in the males attractiveness is an intended outcome of the fungusin order to spread itself further and increase its transmissionis not known. The researchers suggest that this could be the case, or perhaps the increase in calling has been selected for in infected males that need to reproduce earlier before they die. Either way, it adds to a growing body of evidence that infections of chytridiomycosis are far more complicated than thought.

While there is currently no way to prevent the disease, last year it was reported that scientists had managed to cure a population of Majorcan midwife toads, a species that had previously been decimated by the fungus. This week also saw the news that researchers had managed to find a short-term treatment for the disease, which could extend the time needed to save the amphibians, but not cure them completely.

Photo Gallery

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Here’s What Everyone Thought Beyonc’s Met Gala Dress Looked Like

I love Queen Bey. I do. I watched the entirety of “Lemonade” eight times, have taken not one, but three Beyonc dance classes and have seriously considered calling my adopted cat Mrs. Carter.

When Beyonc’sMet Gala moment came, I was expecting fireworks. I was expecting sheer panels, lace and maybe a swinging baseball bat or two.

Instead, the world got this:

And the world let out a sigh of disappointment. That dress might’ve been Givenchy, but it was more like Givensh*tty.

Seriously, people were not happy.

There was serious concern for Becky.

Basically, everyone thought it was a condom.

Some wondered the logistics of it all.

But this guy totally got it right.

Here we are, Ramsay. Here we are.

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